Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy an essential process that involves the usage of radiation to detect the presence of elements within a given sample. This process usually carried out through the absorption of optical radiation by free atoms in any gas. This an extremely essential method and can help to detect over 70 elements in a given piece of sample.
This idea put to use in both pharmaceuticals as well as in forensic departments as various body parts such as nails, hair and skin samples can be studied efficiently. The device used for all of these purposes called an Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer. There a varied number of ways through which this device can put to use and there a lot of technicalities attached to the same.
Flame Atomic Absorption
One of the most common methods that used in performing AAS flame spectroscopy. In this method, an air-acetylene torch used with temperatures of around 2300 degrees Celsius. The concept focuses on the usage of liquid and dissolved samples along with flame atomizers. The device helps to convert a given sample solution into an aerosol. This process performed by a nebulizer and then after passing through a spray chamber, it allowed to mix with gases. Spectroscopy
The light from the flame passes through the sample and the amount of the same that absorbed calculated. It vital to note that there are two distinct processes involved in this method which called vaporization and ionization. There always a risk of interference and a result, that sensitivity could be reduced. Therefore, precautions mandatory to taken.
Hydride Generation Method
The second vital method that used to perform the above-mentioned technique involves the conversion of given samples to volatile hydride metals. This an efficient method that helps to increase the atomization process quite a lot. At the same time, it helps to remove any form of detection limits. Elements like Arsenic, Mercury and Selenium very difficult to detect due to the way they react with others. All of these elements can identified in any given sample of water and therefore, it finds application relating to water purification.
Graphite tube technique
This a technique that involves the usage of a graphite coated furnace to atomize a given sample. This concept also known as electro thermal atomic absorption spectroscopy. In this method of AAS, a three-step process essentially followed. The first step helps to evaporate the given sample with temperatures of around 100 degrees. In the second step, the given substance turned to ash. Finally, this ash atomized with temperatures of around 2000 degrees. This particular method helps to obtain accuracy in measuring micro samples and at the same time, it helps to provide reproducibility of results. Spectroscopy
An Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer one of the most vital inventions in the current generation. Understanding elements and the way they react to different compounds quite essential to achieve development. Since Sir Ian Walsh developed the idea in 1950, people have come a long way and have used this method in analyzing blood, plasma, urine as well muscle tissue. The fields of pharmacology, biophysics, archaeology and toxicology would not have been possible without this piece of equipment.
Key Aspects Behind Advanced Water Purification
Water purification has become extremely vital in the current day world. The level of pollution has grown considerably over the past few years and a result of that, the health of people has deteriorated. The presence of toxic substances like Arsenic and Mercury has resulted in heart problems as well as blood cancer. This especially important for the various industries and quite specifically the pharmaceutical and the manufacturing industry. In both of those areas, the purity of raw materials quite paramount. Spectroscopy
The device that used to test the presence of impurities and other forms of substances in water called a TOC analyzer. This equipment comprised of three different techniques, namely, sampling, oxidation, and detection. However, there quite a few things that essential to considered before such a machine put to use. All of these will discussed in brief over the next few sections, with specific advancements in those areas as well.
1. Oxidation through Combustion
There are a wide number of ways through which the second step can undertaken and one of them by using intense heat. In this method, a high-temperature furnace used and the sample usually injected through a syringe into the same. The furnace under consideration primarily comprised of platinum and cobalt catalysts. Once this process undertaken, carbon dioxide is produced and directed into a non-dispersive infrared detector (NDIR).
This method has changed in recent years, a new technology called Focus NDIR has developed and put to use. As mentioned earlier, the volume of the compound directly correlates with the total number of organics present in a given sample. However, at times on account of corrosion, the detector can get damaged and thus leading to incorrect data. Through the technology mentioned, no amount of intensity lost and thus sensitivity never compromised.
2. Wet Oxidation
The second essential aspect to consider isrelating to the use of Ultraviolet or UV radiation in water purification. In this method, acid or water used and it usually added to a given sample. This in turn helps to reduce the pH value to 2 or 3. In order to perform this task, nitrogen or argon gases primarily used as a carrier. It essential to note that using oxygen a carrier gas can often lead to ionization to ozone.
On account of the above-mentioned process, any form of existing inorganic carbon liberated carbon dioxide. Finally, the rest of the sample oxidized using UV radiation and once that done the analysis process conducted. This particular method extremely valuable for pharmaceutical companies and for analyzing substance based impurities in drinking water, groundwater, well as surface water.
A wide range of measurements undertaken while using a TOC analyzer. These include total carbon, total inorganic carbon, purge able organic carbon, dissolved and non-dissolved organic carbon. Depending on the technique used and the kind of filter that is being deployed, the results will vary. The flexibility of the device allows scope for varied functionality and it ultimately depends on the need of the user.